COURSE DESCRIPTION


M.D. Paediatrics or Doctor of Medicine in Paediatrics is a postgraduate Paediatrics course. Paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. The course provides medical and para-medical education to the students to ensure overall development of theoretical and practical skills. The duration of the course is three years and it may be more or less than as per the rules and regulations of different institutions. The course is an important and valuable one that opens many scopes after its completion.


M.D. Paediatrics Eligibility

  • Candidates should have a pass degree of M.B.B.S. from the recognized university.

M.D. Paediatrics Course Suitability

  • They should be able to interpret data obtained by anthropometric measurement and developmental assessment and assess nutritional status and determine if the child is getting adequate nutrition.
  • Candidates must be able to provide nutritional advice for newborn babies, infants, children and adolescents and provide advice regarding breast-feeding, weaning and balanced diet.
  • They should be able to provide good advice regarding healthy & hygienic practices with a view to prevent diseases, disorders, injuries, accidents and poisoning.
  • Students should be able to undertake relevant investigations for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation taking into consideration the risks, benefits and costs involved.

How is M.D. Paediatrics Course Beneficial?

  • After completing the course they can recognize the key importance of child health in the context of the health priority of the country and can help in many ways.
  • They recognize the importance of growth and development as the foundation of Paediatrics; and help each child realize her/his optimal potential in this regard.
  • The degree course also provides good bases for further research studies.
  • They can perform relevant investigative and therapeutic procedures for the paediatric patient; interpret important imaging and laboratory results.

COURSE ELIGIBILITY


Candidates should have a pass degree of M.B.B.S. from the recognized university.
  • M.D. Paediatrics Syllabus

    Syllabus of Paediatrics as prescribed by various Universities and Colleges.

    Sr. No.

    Subjects of Study

     

    Theory

    (A)

    Approach to important clinical problems

     

    1. Growth and development.
    Short stature, obesity, precocious and delayed puberty, developmental delay, impaired learning.
    2. Neonatology.
    Normal newborn, low birth weight newborn, sick newborn.
    3. Nutrition.
    Lactation management and complementary feeding, protein energy malnutrition (underweight, wasting, stunting) and micronutrient and vitamin deficiency, failure to thrive.
    4. Cardiovascular.
    Murmur, cyanosis, congestive heart failure, systemic hypertension, arrhythmia, shock.
    5. GIT and liver.
    Acute, persistent and chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain and distension, ascites, vomiting, constipation, gastrointestinal bleeding, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and chronic liver disease, hepatic failure and encephalopathy.
    6. Respiratory
    Cough/chronic cough, noisy breathing, wheezy child, respiratory distress, hemoptysis.
    7. Infections.
    Acute onset, pyrexia with and without localizing sign, recurrent infections, nosocomial infections.
    8. Renal
    Hematuria/dysuria, bladder/bowel incontinence, voiding dysfunctions, inguinoscrotal swelling, renal failure (acute and chronic).
    9. Hematooncology.
    Lymphadeno-pathy, anemia, bleeding.
    10. Neurology.
    Limping child, convulsions, abnormality of gait, intracranial space occupying lesion, paraplegia, quadriplegia, large head, small head, floppy infant, acute flaccid paralysis, cerebral palsy and other neuromotor disability, headache.
    11. Endocrine.
    Thyroid swelling, ambiguous genitalia, obesity, short stature.
    12. Skin/Eye/ENT.
    Skin rash, pigmentary lesions, pain/discharge from ear, hearing loss, epistaxis, refractory errors, blindness, cataract, eye discharge, redness, squint, proptosis.
    13. Miscellaneous.
    Habit disorders, hyperactivity and attention deficit syndrome, arthralgia, arthritis, multiple congenital anomalies, speech disorders.

    (B)

    Disorders

     

    Definition, epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, presentation, complications, differential diagnosis, and treatment
    1. Growth and development.
    Principles of growth and development, normal growth and development in childhood and adolescence, deviations in growth and development, sexual maturation and its disturbances.
    2. Neonatology.
    Prenatal care, normal newborn, care in the labor room and resuscitation, low birth weight, prematurity, newborn feeding, respiratory distress, apnea, infections, jaundice, anemia and bleeding disorders, neurologic disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, renal disorders, malformations, thermoregulation and its disorders, understanding of prenatal medicine.
    3. Nutrition.
    Maternal nutritional disorders: impact on fetal outcome, nutrition for the low birth weight, breast feeding, infant feeding including complementary feeding, protein energy malnutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, trace elements of nutritional importance, obesity, adolescent nutrition, nutritional management in diarrhea, nutritional management of systemic illnesses (celiac disease, hepatobiliary disorders, nephrotic syndrome), parenteral and enteral nutrition in neonates and children.
    4. Cardiovascular.
    Congenital heart diseases (cyanotic and acyanotic), rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, infective endocarditis, arrhythmia, diseases of myocardium (cardiomyopathy, myocarditis), diseases of pericardium, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidemia in children.
    5. Respiratory.
    Congenital and acquired disorders of nose, infections of upper respiratory tract, tonsils and adenoids, obstructive sleep apnea, congenital anomalies of lower respiratory tract, acute inflammatory upper airway obstruction, foreign body in larynx, trachea and bronchi, subglottic stenosis (acute and chronic), trauma to larynx, neoplasm of larynx and trachea, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, aspiration pneumonia, GER, acute pneumonia, recurrent and interstitial pneumonia, suppurative lung disease, atelectasis, lung cysts, emphysema and hyperinflation bronchial asthma, pulmonary edema, bronchiectasis, pleural effusion, pulmonary leaks, mediastinal mass.
    6. Gastrointestinal and liver diseases.
    Diseases of mouth, oral cavity and tongue, disorders of deglutition and esophagus, peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori infection, foreign body, congenital pyloric stenosis, intestinal obstruction, malabsorption syndrome, acute and chronic diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Hirschsprung’s disease, anorectal malformations, liver disorders: hepatitis, hepatic failure, chronic liver disease, Wilson’s disease, Budd-Chiari syndrome, metabolic diseases of liver, cirrhosis and portal hypertension.
    7. Nephrologic disorders.
    Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, hemolytic uremic syndrome, urinary tract infection, VUR and renal scarring, renal involvement in systemic diseases, renal tubular disorders, congenital and hereditary renal disorders, renal and bladder stones, posterior ure-thral valves, hydronephrosis, voiding dysfunction, enuresis, undescended testis, Wilm’s tumor, fluidelectrolyte disturbances.
    8. Neurologic disorders.
    Seizure and non seizure paroxysmal events, epilepsy and epileptic syndromes of childhood, meningitis (pyogenic and TBM), brain abscess, coma, acute encephalitis and febrile encephalopathies, Guillain-Barre syndrome, neurocysticercosis and other neuro-infestations, HIV encephalopathy, SSPE, cerebral palsy, neurometabolic disorders, mental retardation, learning disabilities, muscular dystrophies, acute flaccid paralysis and AFP surveillance, ataxia, movement disorders of childhood, CNS tumors, malformations, Neurocutaneous syndrome, Neurodegenerative disorders, head injury.
    9. Hematology and oncology.
    Deficiency anemia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, disorders of hemostasis, thrombocytopenia, blood component therapy, transfusion related infections, bone marrow transplant/stem cell transplant, acute and chronic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, neuroblastoma, hypercoagulable states, transfusion related problems.
    10. Endocrinology.
    Hypopituitarism/hyperpituitarism, Diabetes insipidus, pubertal disorders, hypo and hyperthyroidism, hypo- and hyperparathyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, Cushing’s syndrome, adrenogenital syndromes, diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, short stature, failure to thrive, gonadal dysfunction and intersexuality, pubertal changes and gynecological disorders.
    11. Infections.
    Bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, rickettssial, mycoplasma, Pneumocystis carinii infections, chlamydia, protozoal and parasitic, tuberculosis, HIV, nosocomial infections, control of epidemics and infection prevention.
    12. Emergency and critical care.
    Emergency care of shock, cardiorespiratory arrest, respiratory failure, congestive cardiac failure, acute renal failure, status epilepticus, fluid and electrolyte disturbances and its therapy, acid-base disturbances, poisoning, accidents, scorpion and snake bites. Management of arrythmia, ARDS, Hepatic encephalopathy, CRF, DKA, poisoning (including OPC) near drowning, status asthmaticus.
    13. Immunology and rheumatology.
    Arthritis (acute and chronic), connective tissue disorders, disorders of immunoglobulins, T and B cell disorders, immunodeficiency syndromes.
    14. ENT.
    Acute and chronic otitis media, conductive/sensorineural hearing loss, postdiphtheritic palatal palsy, acute/chronic tonsillitis/adenoids, allergic rhinitis/sinusitis, foreign body.
    15. Skin diseases
    Exanthematous illnesses, vascular lesions, pigment disorders, vesicobullous disorders, infections: pyogenic, fungal and parasitic; Steven-Johnson syndrome, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, drug rash, urticaria, alopecia, icthyosis.
    16. Eye problems.
    Refraction and accommodation, partial/total loss of vision, cataract, night blindness, chorio-retinitis, strabismus, conjunctival and corneal disorders, retinopathy of prematurity, retinoblastoma, optic atrophy, papilledema.
    17. Behavioural and psychological disorders Rumination, pica, enuresis, encopresis, sleep disorders, habit disorders, breath holding spells, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism.
    18. Social paediatrics.
    National health programs related to child health, child abuse and neglect, child labour, adoption, disability and rehabilitation, rights of the child, national policy of child health and population, juvenile delinquency.
    19. Genetics.
    Chromosomal disorders, single gene disorders, multifactorial/ polygenic disorders, genetic diagnosis, and prenatal diagnosis, gene therapy and genetic counselling.
    20. Orthopaedics.
    Major congenital orthopaedic deformities, bone and joint infections: pyogenic, tubercular, and common bone tumours.
    21. Vaccine preventable diseases/all vaccines including newer vaccines.
    22. Miscellaneous
    Inborn errors of metabolism, allergic disorders.
    23. Clinical

    (C)

    Practical

     

    1. History and examination.
    History taking including psychosocial history, environmental immunization history, physical examination including funds examination, newborn examination, including gestation assessment; thermal protection of young infants, nutritional anthropometry and its assessment, assessment of growth, use of growth chart, SMR rating, developmental evaluation, communication with children, parents, health functionaries and social support groups; and genetic counselling.
    2. Bedside procedures 
    (a) Monitoring skills: Temperature recording, capillary blood sampling, arterial blood sampling.
    (b) Therapeutic skills: Hydrotherapy, nasogastric feeding, endotracheal intubation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (pediatric and neonatal), administration of oxygen, venepuncture and establishment of vascular access, administration of fluids, blood, blood components, parenteral nutrition, intraosseous fluid administration, intrathecal administration of drugs, common dressings, abscess drainage and basic principles ofrehabilitation.
    (c) Investigative skills: Lumbar puncture, ventricular tap, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, pleural, peritoneal, pericardial and subdural tap, biopsy of liver and kidney, collection of urine for culture, urethral catheterization,1 suprapubic aspiration.
    3. Bedside investigations.
    Hemoglobin, TLC, ESR, peripheral smear staining and examination, urine: routine and microscopic examination, stool microscopy including hanging drop preparation, examination of CSF and other body fluids, Gram stain, ZN stain, shake test on gastric aspirate.
    4. Interpretation of X-rays of chest, abdomen, bone and head; ECG; ABG findings; CT/MRI scan and other investigation relevant to Paediatrics.
    5. Understanding of common EEG patterns, audiograms, ultrasonographic abnormalities and isotope studies.
    6. Basic Sciences
    Embryogenesis of different organ systems especially heart, genitourinary system, gastrointestinal tract, applied anatomy of different organs, functions of kidney, liver, lungs, heart and endocrinal glands. Physiology of micturition and defecation, placental physiology, fetal and neonatal circulation, regulation of temperature (especially newborn), blood pressure, acid base balance, fluid electrolyte balance, calcium metabolism, vitamins and their functions, hematopoiesis, hemostasis, bilirubin metabolism. Growth and development at different ages, puberty and its regulation, nutrition, normal requirements of various nutrients. Basic immunology, biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, ethical and medicolegal issues, teaching methodology and managerial skills, pharmacokinetics of commonly used drugs, microbial agents and their epidemiology.
    7. Community and Social Paediatrics
    National health nutrition programs, nutrition screening of community, prevention of blindness, school health programs, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, contraception, health legislation, national policy on children, adolescence, adoption, child labour, juvenile delinquency, government and nongovernment support services for children, investigation of adverse events following immunization in the community, general principles of prevention and control of infections including food borne, waterborne, soil borne and vector borne diseases, investigation of an outbreak in a community.

Nims University

Jaipur, Rajasthan

Synch with the mission of creating pathways through career to future, the Nims University has emerged as the largest and best self-financed university in North-India. Structured at par with the composite model universities of the leading nations of the world, the Nims University has been legendary in quality teaching and action oriented research in all disciplines..

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